Thursday, 3 April 2014

Clinical Importance of Human Whole Blood Products

Human Whole Blood Products are primarily required for a variety of biological research and development works. The products are collected and processed according to standard collecting methods or as required by research and budget specifications. As per standard procedures, the whole blood is collected from healthy donors and their blood derivatives are tested for HIV, Hepatitis B Surface Antigen, Syphilis and Hepatitis C Virus to ensure quality and safety. The procedure involves separation of source plasma by automatic techniques. Calcium chloride is then added to citrated plasma to produce clotted defibrinated plasma. The process is followed up by serum separation as per requirements.  An approximate quantity of 450ml whole blood is required for preparing whole bold without anti-coagulant and then serum is separated from the same.
A variety of human blood products are available, some standard ones are mentioned, such as Whole blood, Recovered plasma, Red blood cells, Platelet rich plasma, Human serum, Source plasma, Platelet concentrates, Leukocytes or Buffy coats.

The most abundant protein found in human blood plasma is the human serum, the seat of whose production is the liver. Human serum has a diversified use in applications involving clinical cell culture. The traditional products derived from human serum are restricted by blood availability and also the exposure to viral transmissions from the donors.

Some Uses of Human Serum Are:
  • Clinical treatment of serious burn injuries, shock from hemorrhage, liver cirrhosis, foetal erythroblastosis etc.
  • Medium for cell culture for vaccine and pharmaceutical product production.
  • Other biological applications such as peptide fusion, oxygen carrier, Nano delivery of drugs etc.

Human ab serum is functional in growing human cells at a much higher speed and requires a lesser quantity of serum as compared to other blood group serums. This type does not have antibodies for A and B blood group antigens and is mostly used to minimize the effects of immune reactivity. It is prepared from only male AB blood group source plasma. The samples are tested for anti HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV- type 1 & 2 and then each plasma unit is defibrinated to obtain the serum. It is then filtered and preserved. The final serum is extensively tested before distribution as they have very high potential for infections and should be handled with extra caution. In spite of all the tests for virus, antigens and antibodies are performed, they still are not hundred percent safe as far as transmission of infectious diseases are concerned.
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